Register your business

There are two categories of business entities that an investor can choose from when intending registering a business in Namibia:

  • Foreign existing company registration

  • New Namibian entity registration

Register a foreign existing company in Namibia

The procedure for investors is as follows:

1. Submit a name application/reservation form CM5Name reservations can also be done online. 

2. Once the name reservation is approved, apply for a Certificate of Incorporation and Certificate to Commence Business. This requires the submission of the following documents:

  • Certified copy of the Memorandum and Article of Association in triplicate, as it was registered in its original country
  • Notice of postal and registered address on CM22;
  • List of Directors, Auditors and Public Officers on CM29;
  • Appointment of an Auditor on CM31;
  • Alteration to Memorandum of External Company on CM39;
  • Application of Certificate of Registration of Memorandum of External Company CM49;
  • Statement by each Director regarding the Adequacy if Capital of Company on CM47;
  • Request for submission of additional Copies on CM51.

Register a new Namibian entity

For investors choosing to register any of the following entities when establishing a business in Namibia, the proecedure is as follows: Public Company, Private Company, Partnership, Joint Venture, Close Corporation, Sole Proprietor and a Business Trust.

  1. Submit a name reservation with the Business and Intellectual Property Authority (BIPA);
  2. Prepare and submit registration documents with BIPA;
  3. Receive a certificate of incorporation;
  4. Apply for a taxpayer identification number with the Namibia Revenue Agency (NamRA);
  5. Register for VAT;
  6. Register for Social Security;
  7. Register for PAYE tax.

Find out more...

Relevant institutions Business and Intellectual Property Authority (BIPA)

Registration Procedures for other types of business entities

Close Corporations:

1. Submit  a name application/reservation form CC8

Name reservations can also be done online 

2. On approval of name reservation, submit a Founding Statement, form CC1. This requires the submission of the following documents:

  • Copy of the approved form for name reservation;
  • Founding statement in triplicate;
  • Consent letter from the accounting officer;
  • Certified Copy of passport in case of foreigners.
Private (proprietary) Limited and Public (Limited) Companies

1. Submit name application/reservation form CM5 or reserve a name online

2. Upon approval, you may apply for a Certificate of Incorporation and Certificate to Commence Business. This requires the submission of the following documents:

  • Memorandum and Article of Association in triplicate of forms CM3CM4CM44B and CM44C;
  • Copy of approved name on CM5;
  • Notice of postal and registered address on CM22;
  • List of Directors, Auditors and Public Officers on CM29;
  • Appointment of an Auditor on CM31;
  • Application of Certificate of Registration of Memorandum of External Company CM46;
  • Request for submission of additional Copies on CM51.

Find out more...

Relevant institutions Business and Intellectual Property Authority (BIPA)

Investment concessions

Namibia offers a number of different concessions for investors The Namibia Investment Promotion and Development Board (NIPDB) is the first point of contact in order to obtain up-to date information on, and assistance with investment incentives. Below are some of the incentives that are available for investors:

Tax Incentives

The Income Tax Amendment Act, 2020 repealed the provisions relating to tax incentives for manufacturers. These special income tax incentives granted to registered manufacturers by the time of the amendment in 2020, in relation to the above shall continue to apply until the end of the 2025 tax year in respect of each registered manufacturer. 

The Ministry of Industrialisation and Trade, the Ministry of Finance and NIPDB are in the process of developing new incentives schemes for various investments outside the Special Economic Zones. The new incentives scheme is expected to be in place together with the special economic zones incentives scheme by mid-year 2023.

Find out more...

Relevant documents Income Tax Act 24 of 1981 Income Tax Laws Amendment Act, 2020
Relevant institutions Ministry of Finance

Special Economic Zones (SEZs)

These are geographically delineated areas subject to differentiated regulation and administration from the host country in which they reside. The intention is to provide an internationally competitive environment and quality infrastructure for the attraction of investment, industrial development and promotion of exports. 

Namibia has begun working on the National SEZ Policy which expands and subsumes the existing Export Processing Regime (EPZ). 

The SEZ policy was finalized and adopted in August 2022, but the SEZ Act will only be enacted in year 2023.

In order to ensure a seamless transition from the Namibian Export Processing Zone model to the envisaged SEZ, the policy recommends the following:

  • The Ministries of Finance and Industrialisation and Trade will allow for a grandfathering period of a maximum of 5 years for existing investors in the Export Processing Zones, effective from 31 December 2020 to 31 December 2025,
  • An approved enterprise under the existing EPZ Act that intends to continue its activities as an SEZ enterprise under the proposed SEZ legislation shall have to apply to the Minister of Industrialisation for approval.
  • Notwithstanding the repeal of the EPZ Act and the provisions for manufacturers incentives in the Income Tax Act, an approved enterprise under the EPZ law will be entitled to receive existing benefits during the grandfathering period.

Hereunder are the identified incentives:

The SEZ policy has made a provision for both fiscal and non-fiscal investment incentives for various investment categories among others, Exporters and Manufacturers. Hereunder are some of the identified, but not limited to; 

a) Fiscal Incentives

  • Lower Corporate Income Tax rates
  • Reduced Import duties/customs tariffs.
  • Capital Deductions Allowance
  • Research and Development Allowance

b) Non Fiscal Incentives 

  • Establishment of One-Stop Shop
  • Competitive Utility Tariffs

Supportive and directed approach to provision of Visa for non-resident foreign investors. The detailed Investment Incentives Schedule can be obtained from NIPDB.

Find out more...

Relevant institutions Ministry of Industrialization and Trade Ministry of Finance

Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)

If you are investing in a project that may have an environmental impact you will need to obtain an Environmental Impact Assessment Clearance Certificate. The Environmental Management Act No. 7 of 2007 requires Environmental Assessments to be conducted for business projects and activities that have a potential impact on the environment.

The Government notice below provides a list of activities that may not be undertaken without an Environmental Clearance Certificate. EIA are widely undertaken in various sectors in Namibia and in particular in the mining and petroleum industries. 

The environment impact assessment process involves the following steps:

  • Application:  A person who wants to carry out a listed activity (the “proponent”) applies to the competent authority for an environmental clearance certificate. The competent authority forwards the application to the Environmental Commissioner.  A competent authority is an organ of state which is responsible, under any law, for granting or refusing an authorisation.
  • Screening: The Environmental Commissioner decides if an environmental assessment is required. 

    • If it is found that EIA is not required, the Environmental Commissioner decides whether or not to grant the environmental clearance certificate. 
    • If it is found that the EIA is required, the follwing steps must be followed:

  • Scoping: the Environmental Commissioner decides on the scope and procedure for the assessment. The Environmental Commissioner tells the proponent what must be done and sets a time frame for the assessment.
  • Assessment: The proponent carries out the assessment and submits an assessment report to the Environmental Commissioner. 
  • Public Consultation: Persons who may be affected by the activity must be notified and given a chance to inspect the assessment report and make submissions on it. 
  • Review: The Environmental Commissioner reviews the application for the environmental clearance certificate. This process can include further consultations or investigations. 
  • Decision on Certificate: The Environmental Commissioner decides whether or not to grant the environmental clearance certificate. 
    •  It can result in approval, under certain conditions or amendments, or rejection of the clearance.
    • Any person who feels that the Environmental Commissioner’s decision was not fair can appeal to the Minister responsible for the environment

What investors think

Investors noted the positive attitude of the Namibian government towards FDI.

However, while business registration is straighforward on paper, and allows the use of representative agents to act on behalf of investors, queries can take time to resolve. 


Namibia has an estimated population of 2.4 million in 2018. The labour force was estimated at 1.1 million in the same year, with an unemployment rate of about 33 percent.


According to UNESCO Namibia has an adult literacy rate of 92%.

The education system in Namibia comprises compulsory and free primary education, three years of junior secondary and two years of senior secondary education, from the age groups of six to sixteen. In addition to this, there is also the Government-established Namibia College of Open Learning (NAMCOL), which provides alternative secondary education for adults and out of school youth.

There is additionally, tertiary education in Namibia, which comprises of two public institutions of higher learning. These are the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST) and the University of Namibia (UNAM)

There are moreover, private institutions of higher learning, such as the International University of Management (IUM).

Parallel to the university system is the vocational post-secondary system which offer certificates, diplomas and higher national diplomas for two to three year courses, but may not offer degrees. 

Employment and contracts

The employment and contract rules in Namibia are governed by the Labour Act 11 of 2007

Employment contracts in Namibia are deemed to be for an indefinite term unless the employer has a reason to hire an employee for a fixed term. Written agreements must contain the workplace details, salary, employer and employee identification, the nature of the job, working hours, the date of commencement of the work, the end date if for a fixed term, and in the local language of the employee.

There is no statutory limitation on the duration of a fixed-term contract. Rather, the duration is determined by an agreement between the employee and employer or collective agreement. Likewise, there is no statutory provision related to the length and term of the probation period. Employers and employees can agree to a probation period through an individual or collective agreement.

Employers and employees can terminate an employment contract in Namibia. During the termination process, an employer is prohibited from dismissing an employee without a valid and fair reason and must follow a fair procedure stipulated by law, regardless of whether notice is given.

Termination of the employment contract is considered unfair when the employer dismisses an employee for reasons such as:

  • Disclosure of information that the employee is legally entitled or required to disclose
  • Refusal to do anything unlawful
  • Exercise of right given by law or in an individual or collective agreement

A fair reason to dismiss an employee depends on the nature and seriousness of the cause. Just cause can include, but is not limited to employee misconduct, employee incapacity, whether performance or health-related, employee incompatibility, the unsuitability during the probationary period and the operational requirements of the business.

Whether the termination is by the employee or by the employer, the notice period varies depending on the length of time worked.

A more extended period of notice is allowed if both the employer and employee agree, provided that the notice period applies equally to the employer and employee. It is prohibited to give notice during any leave granted to the employee. The employer may provide pay in lieu of notice in the amount the employee would have received during the work period of notice. Also, the employer has the right to waive notice given by an employee with the payment of the employee’s remuneration in lieu of the notice.

Upon termination, an employer is responsible for paying any work done before the termination notice, annual leave entitlements, paid time off for Sunday work or public holiday (if applicable), severance pay (if applicable) and transport allowance (if applicable).

Severance pay is equal to at least one week’s remuneration for each year of continuous service with the employer, after 12 months of uninterrupted service.

Find out more...

Relevant documents Labour Act 11 of 2007
Relevant institutions Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relation and Employment Creation


There is no official minimum wage rate in Namibia, except for domestic workers (see regulations below). Collective agreements in different sectors may set the minimum wage. This has been done for the construction industry (see below). 

Furthermore, annual bonuses are not required but some employers do pay them.

Hereunder are examples of approximate wages payable:


Senior managerUSD6,156.00Per Month before deductions
Middle managerUSD5,596.00Per Month before deductions
Graduate entryUSD1,678.00Per Month before deductions
Skilled technicianUSD2,686.00Per Month before deductions
Shop assistantUSD1,208.00Per Month before deductions
Office assistantUSD1,343.00Per Month before deductions
Security guardUSD537.00Per Month before deductions
DriverUSD1,007.00Per Month before deductions

Non-wage benefits

Non-wage benefits

Benefits Days
Annual leave 20 days for a 5 day work week
Sick leave 1 day for every 26 days worked
Compassionate leave 5 working days per year
Maternity leave 3 months

Find out more...

Relevant documents Labour Act 11 of 2007

Social Security contributions

Social Security

Namibia has a limited social security system. The Maternity Leave, Sick Leave, and Death Benefit Fund are compulsory for all employees. It is funded by employer and employee contributions of 0.9% of the basic salary, with a maximum contribution of NAD 81 per month each (i.e. the total monthly contribution of both the employer and the employee will amount to NAD 162).

Workmen's compensation

Under the Employees' Compensation Act 30 of 1941, employers are required to contribute to a fund that provides cash benefits for industrial injury, disability, and death. Contribution rates vary according to inherent occupational risk, from less than 1% in most low-risk commercial/administrative occupations to 8% for high-risk sectors (drilling, tunnelling, and rock-blasting). 

Employees whose annual remuneration exceeds NAD 81,300 are normally excluded from coverage.

Social security contributions

Employer contribution Employee contribution
Social Security N$81.00 N$81.00

Work permits

A work permit allows the employee to stay and work in the country for one to three years. A Namibian employment work permit is normally issued for a period of between 1 and 3 years.  The immigration board can within the provisions of the act extend the period for which, an employment work permit was issued.

Work permits are primarily approved by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Immigration, Safety and Security.

In applying for a work permit, employers are required to demonstrate that having called for applications through the publication of a job vacancy, a suitable applicant could not be found locally.

There are some key considerations that the Immigration board take into account when accessing whether to issue a Namibia employment work permit:

  • It is essential to prove that the applicant possesses the required skills, qualifications and experience in their specific field.
  • That the prospective employer has been unable to recruit and full the position with a Namibian candidate. Currently Namibia does have shortage of skills in certain areas and there is a basic understanding of the need to recruit expatriate workers to fill these positions.

 All applicants should be in possession of their permit prior to entry into Namibia.

Applications for a visa can take anywhere between three and nine months to process.

Spouses and children

Spouses and children may also be issued within the Namibia employment work permit permission to enter and stay in Namibia.

Guarantee payment

There is an onus on the Namibia employment work permit holder to adhere to the terms and conditions that the permit was issued under. To ensure this a guarantee payment may need to be made as specified in the appropriate Gazette.

Find out more...

Relevant documents Immigration Control Act 7 of 1993
Relevant institutions Ministry of Home Affairs, Immigration, Safety and Security

Application process

All non-Namibian employees should be in possession of a valid work permit prior to entry into Namibia. 

These are the documents required for all work permit applications:

  1. Completed temporary work or student permit form number 0/2742(2)
  2. Completed  visa application form number 3-10033
  3. Completed medical report form number 3-1/0003
  4. Completed radiological report form number  3-1/0004
  5. Completed deed of surety form number 3-1/0005 signed by bank or employer
  6. Copy of passport (personal data page)
  7. Two (2) passport photos
  8. Police clearance certificate from country of origin and last country of residence for the past six (6) months (and from Namibia in case of renewal and change of condition)(applicable to applicants 18 years and above)
  9. Copy of marriage certificate (para. 6). If married to a Namibian citizen and  proof of citizenship
  10. Registration with Namibia Professional Board/ Council or Association, if the profession requires that.
  11. Upon approval, applicant will be requested to submit approval letter passport for endorsement together with original receipt of payment of permit

The application processing time can take up to 1 - 2 months. 

Application Requirements

From the individual

  • A fully completed application form. 
  • 2 recent passport sized photographs;
  • Educational certificates and qualifications.
  • A record of the applicants previous positions held and work references;
  • A police certificate form the applicants country of origin;
  • A radiological report and medical certificate;
  • A copy of the applicants passport;
  • Copy of marriage/divorce certificate if married to a Namibian citizen, proof of citizenship.
From the employer
  • The work offer (Representation by Employer);
  • If position was advertised, a copy of Advertisement;
  • Motivational letter from the prospective employer;
  • The deed of surety;
  • Proof that the vacancy was advertised in the Namibian press.

Job specific requirements

  • Position in Government service – must have a letter of recommendation from the Permanent Secretary of that Ministry.
  • Medical officers – proof of registration with the Medical Board of Namibia.
  • Engineers – proof of registration with the Namibia Engineering Council.

  • What investors think

    Namibia has good labour relations. 

    There is a large output of university graduates but there is a need for artisans and skilled labourers. 

    The process for obtaining work permits could be better streamlined as there are sometimes delays in the processing and approval of permits, and the process is not always as straightforward as it could be.


    NamPower is Namibia’s national electric power utility. It supplies bulk electricity to Regional Electricity Distributors (REDs), mines, farms and local authorities (where REDs are not operational) throughout Namibia.

    Namibia generates electricity from the Ruacana hydropower station when it is running at full capacity, especially in the rainy season, the coal-fired Van Eck statio, and the Paratus power station near Walvis Bay.

    Cost of electricity

    Prepaid rate - c/kWhNAD236.64 2022Domestic and Commercial
    Village Tarrifs- c/kWhNAD212.00 2022Domestic and Business
    Postpaid - Re-Distributors, Commercial, Water Pumping, Mining, Farmers, Farms Additional, Agriculture, Plots & Miscellaneous- c/kWhNAD223.38 2022Small Power Users
    Postpaid - Re-Distributors, Commercial, Water Pumping, Mining, Farmers, Farms Additional, Agriculture, Plots & Miscellaneous- c/kWhNAD137.002022Large Power Users

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Distribution-Tariff-Schedule-2022-2023
    Relevant institutions NamPower Electricity Control Board (ECB)


    The state-owned Namibia Water Corporation (NamWater) supplies water in bulk to industries, municipalities and the Directorate of Rural Water Supply, which is responsible for supplying water to rural communities.

    Water service applications can be obtained from the various municipalities, and as such, the duration of the applications and installation process is largely dependant on the quality of information available from the respective municipality.

    Within the City of Windhoek, each consumer shall pay, in addition to any other tariff payable in terms of any other paragraph of this Annexure, the following basic charge to the Windhoek City Council whether water was consumed or not, determined according to the diameter of the meter inlet: 

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents City of Windhoek Tarrif Book
    Relevant institutions Namibia Water Corporation Ltd (NamWater) City of Windhoek


    Namibia has two main telecommunication providers: Telecom Namibia (Telecom) and Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC). These provide telephone, cellphone and internet services.

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC) Telecom Namibia Limited

    Transport infrastructure

    Below is a description of Namibia's transport infrastructure:

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions Roads Authority of Namibia


    The country's roads are administered by the Roads Authority. Namibia's road network has been ranked among the safest, most efficient and sustainable in the region.The growth of the road infrastructure and the expansion of the road network have contributed immensely to the economic development of Namibia and the SADC sub-region as a whole.

    The majority of towns and communities can be reached by a network of quality gravel trunk, main and district road networks totalling a distance of 48,117 km, including 4,500 km of tarred roads. The Trans-Kalahari and the Trans-Caprivi Highways provide a fast and comfortable road link between Namibia’s port of Walvis Bay on the Atlantic coast, and landlocked neighbouring countries. In particular, the Trans-Kalahari Highway links the port to Botswana, and the Gauteng province, the industrial heart of South Africa. The Trans-Caprivi Highway links Namibia’s landlocked neighbouring countries of Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo to the port of Walvis Bay.


    Namibia's railway network is managed by TransNamib Holdings Ltd and comprises 2 382 km of 1.067 m narrow gauge railway lines. The main line runs from the South African border via Keetmanshoop to Windhoek, Okahandja, Swakopmund and Walvis Bay. A northern section links up with Omaruru, Otjiwarongo, Otavi, Tsumeb and Grootfontein. 

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions TransNamib Holdings Limited


    Namibian airports are developed and managed by the Namibia Airports Company. Several privately-owned domestic charter companies offer regional flights on a regular basis.

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions Namibia Airports Company (NAC)


    Walvis Bay is the country’s main port while Lüderitz is a smaller, secondary port. The ports are operated by the Namibian Ports Authority. The port of Walvis Bay has a depth of 12.8 metres and can accommodate container vessels with a capacity of 2 200–2 400 tonnes. Lüderitz Harbour boasts a new cargo and container quay wall which is 500 metres in length and the channel has a draft of 8.15 metres, which can accommodate vessels up to 150 metres in length.

    For more information on Port tariffs 

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Namport tariff booklet for 2022
    Relevant institutions Namibian Ports Authority (Namport)

    The Walvis Bay Corridor Group

    Walvis Bay corridor

    The Walvis Bay corridor is the name for a newly constructed network of transport links that provides access to landlocked Southern Africa for destinations west of the continent by the shortest possible route. Completed in 1998 and using the port of Walvis Bay as the trade gateway, its main arteries are the TransCaprivi and TransKalahari highways.

    Other costs

    For indicative purposes, a basket of goods and services that investors may face is included below.


    PetrolNAD20.08/LitreNovember 2022
    DieselNAD24.10/LitreNovember 2022
    Cement NAD85.95/ 50 KG2022
    Coca ColaNAD24.00/ 2 Litres2022
    Local BeerNAD17.54/0.5 Litres2022
    Imported BeerNAD25.50/0.33 Litres2022
    Bottled waterNAD16.25/ 1.5 Litre2022
    Milk (regular)NAD19.11/1 Litre2022
    Rice (white)NAD23.51/ 1 KG2022
    FlourNAD13.99/1 KG2022
    Whole ChickenNAD69.90/1.5 KG2022
    Beef MinceNAD84.44/1 KG2022
    Lamb ChopsNAD149.38/1 KG2022

    Types of land

    In Namibia, there are four main categories of land:

    • State land: This is land owned by the State and used for nature conservation (for example, Etosha National Park) and military bases.
    • Urban land: This land can be owned by the State, by a local authority or by private individuals inside the boundaries of local and regional authorities.
    • Commercial farmland: This is agricultural land held under a freehold title.
    • Communal land: This is land held in trust by the State for the benefit of the communities living on it.

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Flexible Land Tenure Act 4 of 2012
    Relevant institutions Ministry Of Agriculture, Water & Land Reform

    Acquisition procedures

    Land can either be leased or bought from the government.

    There are a few acquisition procedures namely:

    • Willing buyer, willing seller: Government buys farms at market prices from willing sellers
    • Compulsory acquisition: Government expropriates farms
    • Market-assisted: Beneficiaries purchase land themselves with subsidies
    • Negotiated transfers: Government and land owners strike a deal

    However, it must be noted that all title deeds should be in conformity to with the Deeds Registries Act 47 of 1937.

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Deeds Registries Act 47 of 1937.

    Land costs

    Unfortunately, Namibia has no database for land costs and as such it does not publish land price statistics which makes ascertaining land costs difficult.

    Indicative land costs are displayed below.


    House Prices in Central NamibiaNAD1,500,000.00Dec 2021
    Land Prices in Central NamibiaNAD823.00Dec 2021per Square meter
    2 bedroom rentalNAD6,424.00 Dec 2021per month
    Warehouse rental NAD35,000.002022600 Square meters

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents FNB Housing Index

    Construction permit procedures

    Whether planning a whole new architecture, renovating an old ruin, or making additions to a family home all may require building, construction permits and if so need an inspection by building construction inspection services. 

    In the City of Windhoek, below are the procedures that need to be followed in order to obtain a buidling permit:

    Step 1: Complete a Permit Application

    An application has to be completed by the owner of the property or their agent through a formal power of attorney. 

    Application forms are available from the City of Windhoek website -  

    Step 2: Submit the Permit Application

    The completed application form together with the required drawings and other documents as may be required is submitted against the payment of the gazette fee at the respective Customer Care Centres.

    Step 3: Building Permit Issued

    Following a review of the application against the applicable regulations (Building, Fire, Health, Planning Scheme, etc.) and upon confirmation of compliance thereto a Building Permit will be issued. The permit legally allows the construction of the planned structures to commence and is an important document for safekeeping together with all drawings so approved.

    Step 4: Scheduled Inspections

    The Building Permit will require mandatory inspections by a Council authorised agent. These inspections are aimed at safeguarding the health, safety, and welfare of the building’s future occupants. The successful completion of these inspections are also a prerequisite for achieving certification for occupation. Attendance and oversight of the required inspections by the owner is therefore strongly recommended.

    Step 5: Certificate of Occupation

    The use and/or occupation of any structure erected in terms of a Building Permit issued by Municipality requires formal certification by an authorised agent of the Council. Such a certificate allows the owner to legally occupy a building or allow it to be occupied, hence it is an important document for safekeeping.

    Below you will find a document on the procedure for obtaining a building permit in Windhoek. 

    Also see information on Environmental Impact assessment at "Get Started".

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Guidelines of Building Permits
    Relevant institutions City of Windhoek

    Special Economic Zones (SEZs)

    The Export Processing Zone Act 9 of 1995 regulates the export processing zone (EPZ) regime for export-oriented manufacturing enterprises in the country, in exchange for technology transfer, capital inflow, skills development and job creation. In terms of this Act, several special incentives are offered to EPZ companies including a corporate tax holiday, exemption from import duties, free repatriation of profits, factory facilities at economic rates and a guarantee of free repatriation of capital and profits.

    Namibia is preparing to discontinue this regime. 

    It will be replaced by the Special Economic Zones (SEZ), which will be established as soon as the SEZ Act has been enacted in 2022.

    Please see the discussion on SEZ under Investment Concessions at "Get Started".

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Export Processing Zones Act 9 of 1995
    Relevant institutions Ministry of Industrialization and Trade

    What investors think

    Namibia’s EIA system conforms to internationally established norms for EIA systems in terms of the formal laws, regulations and procedures. It is found, however, that the implementation of these laws regulations and procedures in practice, is sometimes lacking.

    The environmental authority lacks capacity, both in staffing and expertise. 

    The process has also proved to be unaffordable, bureaucratic and cumbersome at times.

    Tax registration

    Payment of tax is a requirement in terms of Namibian law. Income from a source within Namibia or deemed to be within Namibia will be subject to tax in Namibia, unless a specific exemption is available. 

    A newly registered business entity must apply for a taxpayer identification number and certificate from the Inland Revenue Department. Registration of tax is done through the NamRA. All application forms can accessed on the NamRA ITAS 

    (Integrated Tax Administration System) website. An entity can appoint an accounting officer or agent to attend to the registration process on their behalf.

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Income Tax Act 24 of 1981 Value-Added Tax 10 of 2000
    Relevant institutions Namibia Revenue Agency (NamRA)

    Corporate tax

    In Namibia, the Corporate Income tax rate is a tax collected from companies. Its amount is based on the net income companies obtain while exercising their business activity, normally during one business year. The benchmark used refers to the highest rate for corporate income. 

    Corporate tax

    Type of Entity Tax rate
    Domestic companies and close corporations (excluding entities mentioned below) 32%
    Branches of foreign companies 32%
    Registered manufacturers (only applicable for the first ten years of registration) 18%
    Diamond mining companies and companies that render services to such companies in connection with diamond mining 55%
    Mining companies (other than diamond mining companies) and companies that render services to such companies in connection with mining 18 55 37.5%
    Long-term insurers (the rate is applied to gross investment income) 12.8%
    Petroleum income tax rate 35%

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions Namibia Revenue Agency (NamRA) PWC Namibia

    Personal income tax

    Namibia has a source-based tax system, which means that income from a source within Namibia or deemed to be within Namibia will be subject to tax in Namibia, unless a specific exemption is available.  

    Individual tax is therefore calculated on the total amount, in cash or otherwise, received by or accrued to any person from a source within, or deemed to be within, Namibia, excluding receipts of a capital nature. 

    Tax rate for th 2022/2023 Tax year (N$)

    Taxable Income Tax Rate
    0-50 000 Not Taxable
    50 001-100 000 18% of taxable income above 50 000
    100 001- 300 000 9 000 + 25% of taxable income above 100 000
    300 001- 500 000 59 000 + 28% of the taxable income above 300 000
    500 001- 800 000 115 000 + 30% of taxable income above 500 000
    800 001- 1 500 000 205 000 + 32% of taxable income above 800 000
    1 500 001 and above 429 000 + 37% of taxable income above 1 500 000

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions Namibia Revenue Agency (NamRA)

    Property taxes

    Property rates are levies paid by all property owners including commercial, business, industrial, and residential and government.

    Property rates are based on the municipal value of your property. The charges differ from area to area due to the value of the property.

    This means that the charges differ from property to property. The municipal value of the property is worked out by considering the municipal value of property, which includes land and improvements.

    Property taxes in Windhoek

    Description cent per dollar of property valuation per month
    On Site Value 0.000920
    On Improvement Value 0.000545

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents General Notices 258 -286
    Relevant institutions City of Windhoek

    Capital gains taxes

    Capital gains are not taxed in Namibia. 

    Custom duties

    Namibia is a member of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), and customs duties are not levied on intra-SACU trade (i.e. between Bostwana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland). Customs duties are payable according to the Common Customs Tariff of SACU on imports from outside SACU.

    Preferential duty rates apply on imports from Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries, MERCOSUR countries,  EFTA states and in terms of the African Continental Free Trade Agreement, while goods may be imported free of customs duties from Zimbabwe in terms of the Namibia-Zimbabwe Free Trade Agreement.

    Below is a document outlining the duties payable for specified goods.

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Namibia Customs Tariffs
    Relevant institutions Ministry of Finance

    Other taxes

    Corporate entities may also be subject to the following taxes.

    Workmen's compensation

    Under the Employees Compensation Act 30 of 1941, employers are required to contribute to a fund that provides cash benefits for industrial injury, disability, and death. Contribution rates vary according to inherent occupational risk, from less than 1% in most low-risk commercial/administrative occupations to 8% for high-risk sectors (drilling, tunnelling, and rock-blasting). Employees whose annual remuneration exceeds NAD 81,300 are normally excluded from coverage. 

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Employees Compensation Act 30 of 1941

    Social security contributions

    Social security contributions are payable by the employer for employees working in Namibia. Social security is based on a principle of 50/50 contributions from employers and employees. It is calculated at 0.9% of earnings, with a minimum monthly contribution of NAD 2.70 and a maximum monthly contribution of NAD 81 each (i.e. the total maximum monthly contribution of both the employer and the employee will amount to NAD 162). 

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Social Security Act 34 of 1994

    Payroll taxes

    Any remuneration paid by an employer to an employee will place an obligation on the employer to withhold employee taxes. The employee taxes are due on the 20th day of the month following the month during which the payment was made. The tax tables applicable to individuals are provided in the Taxes on personal income section of Namibia’s Individual tax summary. 

    Annual duty

    Annual duty is levied in terms of the Companies Act at an amount of NAD 6.5 for every NAD 10,000 (or part thereof) of the issued share capital of a company, with a minimum duty of NAD 120 per annum. Issued share capital includes ordinary shares, share premium, and preference shares.

    Stamp duty

    Certain transactions may attract stamp duty. The amount of stamp duty payable differs and is based on the nature of every individual transaction.

    The basic transactions can be summarised above. 

    Additional stamp duty of NAD 5 for every NAD 1,000 of debt secured is payable on the registration of a bond over immovable property. 

    Transfer duty

    Transfer duty is payable at 12% of the acquisition value where property is acquired by non-natural persons (a sliding scale applies to property purchases by natural persons). While it is normally payable by the buyer, the agreement for the sale of the property may determine the person liable to pay these costs. 

    Property taxes

    Property taxes are levied by municipalities based on municipal valuations of properties. 

    Environmental levies

    Namibia introduced environmental levies on the following products imported or manufactured locally:

    • Carbon dioxide emissions from a wide range of vehicles, including trucks. Certain light bulbs.
    • Certain lubricants.
    • Pneumatic tyres.
    • Disposable batteries. Certain plastic bags. 

    Customs and excise duties

    Namibia is a member of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), and customs duties are not levied on intra-SACU trade (i.e. between Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland).

    Customs duties are payable according to the Common Customs Tariff of SACU on imports from outside SACU. Preferential duty rates apply on imports from Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries, MERCOSUR countries, EFTA states, and in terms of the African Continental Free Trade Agreement, while goods may be imported free of customs duties from Zimbabwe in terms of the Namibia-Zimbabwe Free Trade Agreement. 

    Excise duties are levied on local production of excisable products (e.g. cigarettes, liquor, fuel) and are included on most excisable products imported from another SACU country in terms of the duty at source procedures. Identical excise duty rates are applied throughout the SACU.

    Importation of excisable products from outside the SACU is subject to customs duties and specific customs duties. Current specific excise/customs duty rates for the above-mentioned products are as follows:

    • Cigarettes: NAD 9.39/10 cigarettes.
    • Beer: NAD 115.08/litre absolute alcohol (AA).
    • Spirits (whisky, rum, brandy, gin, vodka, etc.): NAD 207.17/litre AA. 
    • Petrol: 3.909 cents/litre.
    • Diesel and biodiesel: 3.817 cents/litre.
    • Illuminating kerosene (paraffin - unmarked): 3.817 cents/litre. 
    • Illuminating kerosene (paraffin - marked): Nil. 

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions Namibia Revenue Agency (NamRA) Ministry of Finance

    Value-added tax (VAT)

    VAT is a transaction tax, and the implications will vary for different transactions. Some transactions are taxed at a rate of 15% or 0% while other transactions are exempt from VAT. Input tax deductions may be claimed, subject to certain provisions.

    VAT is levied on every taxable supply by a registered person. A taxable supply means any supply of goods or services in the course or furtherance of a taxable activity. A taxable activity means any activity that is carried on continuously or regularly in Namibia that involves the supply of goods or services for consideration. 

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions Namibia Revenue Agency (NamRA)

    Double taxation agreements

    Where Namibia has entered into a Double Tax Agreement (DTA) with the country where the foreign company resides, such entity will only be taxable in Namibia if it has established a Permanent Establishment (PE) in Namibia. If a PE exists, only the portion of income attributable to the PE will be subject to tax in Namibia.

    Namibia has entered into DTAs with the following countries:

    • Botswana 
    • France
    • Germany 
    • India 
    • Malaysia 
    • Mauritius 
    • Romania 
    • Russian Federation
    • South Africa
    • Sweden
    • United Kingdom

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions Namibia Revenue Agency (NamRA) PWC Namibia

    What investors think

    Investors noted the positive attitude and approach of the new revenue authority. No specific concerns were raised.

    Many investors make use of accountants and auditors to assist with the process of registration of tax and customs processing. 

    Legal framework and Investment protection

    The Namibian legal system is comprised of Roman-Dutch Common law, Statutory law, Customary law and International law. The Attorney General, the Chief Justice, Judges, and Magistrates administer justice in the country. Appeals from the High Court are considered by the Supreme Court which is the final court of Appeal within Namibia. 

    The Constitution of Namibia provides that the state is "a democratic and unitary state founded on the principles of democracy, the rule of law and justice for all". Consequently all application of laws related to business and investment have to be measured against the Constitution.

    Since independence, the Namibian government has pursued free-market economic principles with a view to attracting foreign direct investment. There are certain legal and treaty measures that exist to provide protection. These apply equally alike to local investors as they do to foreign investors.


    The Constitution of Namibia guarantees protection of private property in Article 16. The Foreign Investments Act of 1990 guarantees against expropriation of private property by government. However, private property may be expropriated where it is in the public interest and where due process is followed as set out in the Constitution, as well as the Agricultural (Commercial) Land Reform Act 6 of 1995.

    Adequate and prompt compensation must be provided in cases of expropriation. 

    Namibia is a signatory to and member of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), an affiliate of the World Bank, which insures investors against loss of Investment to political problems in host countries. 

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents

    Dispute settlement

    If a dispute arises, investors have the option to seek the intervention of the courts in resolving the dispute. Alternative dispute resolution methods are also available and encouraged.

    Arbitration is governed by the Arbitration Act 42 of 1965. Parties opting to refer their present or future differences to arbitration must include an arbitration clause in their agreement. The authority of an arbitrator appointed by virtue of such an agreement is irrevocable, except by leave of the High Court or unless a contrary intention appears in the agreement. 

    Industrial labour disputes can be adjudicated by the in terms of the Labour Act of 2007.

    Arbitation in Namibia is furthermore facilitated by the following agreements to which Namibia is a signatory:

    • The Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards agreed at the United Nations Conference on International Commercial Arbitration held in 1958 in New York (“the New York Convention”) which aims to facilitate the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitration agreements and awards in the same way as domestic arbitration agreements and awards
    • The Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (“UNCITRAL”) 1985 as amended in 2006. 
    • UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules 1976, revised in 2010, amended by the addition of article 1 paragraph 4 in 2013. 

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents
    Relevant institutions Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relation and Employment Creation

    International investment agreements

    • Namibia has ratified Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) with:

    Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland.  Angola, Cuba, China, the Russian Federation, and Vietnam have signed investment agreements with Namibia, but the agreements are not in force. 

    There is furthermore a Trade, Investment, and Development Cooperation Agreement (TIDCA) btween SACU and the United States.

    • Namibia has double taxation agreements with: 

    Botswana, France, Germany, India, Malaysia, Mauritius, Romania, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. 

    Repatriation of funds

    Namibia has a law in place known as Exchange Control Regulations of 1961. Responsibility for the execution of this law rests with the Minister of Finance and the Treasury with certain powers being delegated to the Bank of Namibia, Exchange Control Department. This is done in conjunction with the South African Reserve Bank as a result of Namibia forming part  of the Common Monetary Area (includes South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland.

    These Exchange control regulations aim to limit and control the selling of foreign currencies. This function has also been delegated to commercial banks which hold Exchange Control Rulings and are thereby authorised to act on behalf of the Bank of Namibia. 

    The Foreign Investments Act provides for protection from exchange control rules to registered companies which hold a Certificate of Status Investment. These companies therefore have the right to repatriate all capital, royalties, dividends and profits free of all taxes or any other charges on foreign exchange transactions. 

    Intellectual property

    Namibia is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and its various conventions and protocols, as well as the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), and the African Regional Industrial Property Organization. The Country has laws in place aimed at the registration and enforcement of intellectucal property rights. Foreign investors also benefit from the same rights as local investors.

    Intellectual Property Rights to intellectual property are protected under Namibian law largely by statute but also at common law. Some of the statutes overlap with the common law and with each other. 

    Patents, designs and trademarks are governed by the Industrial Property Act 1 of 2012. The common law recognises that an unregistered mark used by a trader which distinguishes such trader's goods or services from those of others is of a proprietary nature and deserves protection. 

    Any of the works listed in the Copyright and Neighboring Rights Protection Act 6 of 1994 are eligible for copyright protection. Copyright comes into existence without registration and the Act prohibits the unauthorised reproduction, publication, broadcast, performance, transmission or adaptation of a literary, dramatic or musical work.

    In 2014, the Namibian government established the Business and Intellectual Property Authority (BIPA) to improve service delivery and ensure effective administration of business and intellectual property rights (IPRs) registration.  BIPA serves as a one-stop-center for all Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) registrations and related matters.  It also provides general advisory services and information on business registration and IPRs.

    Infringement procedures are also set out in the different legislative texts.

    The following IPR treaties and agreements have been signed/ratified by Namibia. For more information see WIPO commitments

    International agreements

    The following IPR treaties and agreements have been signed/ratified by Namibia. For more information see WIPO commitments on the WIPO website.
    Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (1886) establishes minimum standards regarding the national protection of copyrights in signatory countries, and guarantees the application in these countries of the national copyright law to artistic works originating from another signatory country.

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents WIPO Berne Convention

    Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization (1967)

    Link to WIPO website

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents WIPO Convention

    The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (1883) establishes industrial property protection rules regarding patents, marks, industrial designs, trade names, geographical indications and the repression of unfair competition. Its provisions include regulations regarding the national treatment, the right of priority and a number of common rules.

    Link to WIPO website

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents WIPO Paris Convention
    Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks (1891)

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents WIPO Madrid Agreement (Marks)

    The Protocol empowers the ARIPO Office to receive and process patent and industrial design applications on behalf of states party to the Protocol.

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Harare Protocol

    The protocol establishes a trademark filing system along the lines of the Harare Protocol. Under the Banjul Protocol an applicant may file a single application either at one of the contracting states or directly with the ARIPO Office and designate states in the application where he wishes his mark to be protected.

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Banjul Protocol

    Established under the World Trade Organization, the TRIPS Agreement plays a critical role in facilitating trade in knowledge and creativity, in resolving trade disputes over intellectual property, and in assuring WTO members the latitude to achieve their domestic objectives. The Agreement is legal recognition of the significance of links between intellectual property and trade.

    Patent Cooperation Treaty (1970)

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents WIPO Patent Cooperation Treaty

    Competition law

    The Competition Act 2 of 2003 was issued to safeguard and promote competition in the Namibian market and to establish the Namibian Competition Commission.

    The Namibia Competition Commission is tasked with providing consumers with competitive prices and product choices; promoting employment and advance the social economic welfare of Namibians; expanding opportunities for Namibian participation in world markets while recognizing the role of foreign competition in Namibia; ensuring that small undertakings have an equitable opportunity to participate in the Namibian economy; and promoting a greater spread of ownership, in particular to increase ownership stakes of historically disadvantaged persons.

    What investors think

    There are laws in place that allow for adequate protection of the rights of investors.

    The state may lawfully expropriate property owned by foreign national in the public interest, provided that it is done in accordance with the law.

    Findings show that value addition plays a huge role even in cases of expropriation, as people who add value to their property are well compensated.

    Economy and production

    Namibia is an open economy, whose tertiary industry remains the greatest GDP contributor. This is followed by the primary and secondary industries. 

    The Bank of Namibia retains the sole mandate in terms of Section 19 of the Bank of Namibia Act, 1997 (Act No. 15 of 1997) to produce and issue Namibian currency. The Namibian dollar (N$) is pegged one to one (1:1) to the South African Rand (ZAR).

    The key economic sectors within Namibia are: Agriculture, Fisheries, Manufacturing, Mining, Tourism and Service Industry. 

    Also see:

    World Bank Country Profile: Namibia

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Namibia Investment Projects
    Relevant institutions Bank of Namibia (BON)

    Market access

    Namibia is a member of the WTO as well as a number of regional groupings. Namibia has a preferential trade agreement with Zimbabwe, governed by rules of origin, came into force on 17 August 1992. Goods grown, produced or manufactured in Namibia may be imported into Zimbabwe free of customs duty, and vice versa, if they are wholly produced/obtained in the country of origin.

    Namibia is also a member of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 1990. In terms of the SACU agreement, there is free movement of goods among the members. Article 2 of the agreement prevents members from imposing duties or quantitative restrictions on goods grown, produced or manufactured in the common customs area. Duties are levied on goods upon entry into the common customs area, but once inside it, no further duties are charged.

    Moreover, Namibia is a member of the EFTA and SACU Free Trade Agreement, the Trade, investment and development cooperative agreement between the United States and the Southern African Customs Union, the SADC  Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union, as well as the African, Caribbean and Pacific–European Union (ACP–EU) trade agreement, granting non-reciprocal preferential access to some of the ACP products into the EU market. 

    The above agreements provide free, and or preferential access to the Sothern African, US and EU markets.

    Namibia’s strategic location on the southwestern coast of Africa places it in an ideal position to facilitate trade between landlocked southern African countries and global markets through four well-developed transport corridors. The Walvis Bay Corridor Group promotes trade through four corridors: the Trans Kalahari Corridor (Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa), Walvis Bay-Ndola-Lubumbashi Corridor (Namibia, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo), the Trans Cunene Corridor (Namibia and Angola) and the Trans Oranje Corridor which links the port of Lüderitz with the Northern Cape Province in South Africa and the capital Windhoek. see Namibia Trade Directory

    In addition, Namibia is member of the following regional organizations and trade agreements:

    SADC is a regional organization bringing together countries in the Southern Africa region. It provides for cooperation in a number of areas through legally-binding protocols. The SADC Free Trade Area provides for common external tarrifs on a range of goods. It is envisaged that the free trade area will be integrated into the Continental Free Trade Area.

    Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) Sub-Saharan African countries benefit from duty-free access to the United States for an additional range of 1,800 products that are excluded from the Generalized system of preferences. These include most textiles and apparel; watches; and most footwear, handbags, and luggage products. With regards to apparels, the textiles and yarns must in general originate from Sub-Saharan African countries or the United States.


    The tourism sector is the fastest growing in the economy in terms of contribution to GDP. Tourism is the second largest contributor to the country’s GDP after mining and is one of the country’s dominant industries and provides significant employment opportunities. Namibia is a secure investment environment primarily based on the political stability.

    Namibia has a unique mix of wildlife, spectacular scenery, and diverse cultures.  Natural attractions include the Namib Desert, which is the oldest desert in the world; the Fish River Canyon, which is the second-largest canyon after the Grand Canyon; the world-famous sand dunes at Sossusvlei; the Skeleton Coast with its extraordinary landscapes; and Etosha National Park, one of the largest game reserves in Africa.- See Official Website of the International Trade Administration

    The disruption in the industry that was caused by COVID19, is most likely to reshape Namibia’s tourism industry and could create new opportunities for investors. Opportunities in the tourism industry include investment in accommodation facilities and PPPs in community conservancies.

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions Namibia Tourism Board (NTB) Ministry of Environment and Tourism


    Namibia allows the establishment of private primary, seconday and tertiary education institutions subject to compliance with the national laws. Opportunities exist to establish higher education centres aimed at students from the neighbouring countires, where shortages of places in home countries exist. 


    The agricultural sector directly or indirectly supports over 70% of the total population of Namibia, and its main sources of income are:( i) livestock, beef and mutton production,  and (ii) agronomic production. 

    There are opportunities available in value addition to agricultural products.

    According to the NIPDB, the following opportunties are available in agriculture:

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions Ministry Of Agriculture, Water & Land Reform

    Tandjieskoppe Green Scheme Irrigation Farm

    The Government of Namibia intends to attract private investment and irrigation expertise to help achieve its objectives of increasing food production and skills transfer to emerging irrigation farmers. The project will develop plots that will be allocated to medium-scale commercial farmers and small-scale farmers. It is expected for small scale farmers to learn by monitoring the commercial farmers thereby building local capacity in terms of production and marketing management.

    The project is expected to result in wide economic benefits to the region. Revenue earned by the small-scale farmers is expected to increase their ability to purchase food that they do not produce and provide basic needs such as clothes, housing, education, and medical needs for their families.

    Estimated Investment required: USD 55m

    Project Readiness: Project is ready to commence with the feasibility study. The project was submitted to PPP Unit of the Ministry of Finance for screening and advice for project preparation

    Procurement/implementation consideration: PPP arrangement. 

    Zone Green Scheme Irrigation Farm

    An opportunity exists for the procurement of a private partner to operate the farm on a PPP arrangement, on a Build, Operate, and Transfer (BOT) basis. The private partner will be responsible for funding the infrastructure development and thereafter operate the project for a specified period as per the PPP agreement.

    The operator will produce crops based on the market demand assessment. The developer may have the flexibility to sell the crops produced domestically or abroad, based on the market demand assessment. The size of the area available for development is 1,800 hectares. A large part of the available land is planned for commercial farming and a smaller portion may be utilised for medium scale farming activities.

    Estimated Investment required: USD 24m

    Project Readiness: Project is ready to commence with the feasibility study. The project was submitted to the PPP Unit of the Ministry of Finance for screening and advice for project preparation.

    Procurement/implementation consideration: PPP arrangement. 

    Neckartal Green Scheme Irrigation Farm

    The Neckartal Irrigation Scheme project involves the development of the Neckartal irrigation project and the construction of the Neckartal Farm with a total approximate area of 5,000 hectares that could be used to produce dates and grapes for export. The project is expected to include the setting up of relevant infrastructure for drawing the water from the recently built Neckartal dam, such as pumping stations, irrigation channels, and pipelines, in addition to the allied agriculture infrastructure such, as farm equipment, crop processing units, shed, godowns, silos for storage, and fencing.

    The private developer would have the flexibility to produce any crops, based on the market demand assessment. The private developer would also have the flexibility to sell the crops produced domestically or abroad, based on the market demand assessment.

    Estimated Investment required: USD 200m

    Project Readiness: The project is ready to commence with the feasibility study. The project was submitted to the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Unit of the Ministry of Finance for screening and advice for project preparation.

    Procurement/implementation consideration: PPP arrangement. 


    The Government of the Republic of Namibia is implementing Namibia Water Sector Support Program (NWSSP) in a bid to address the water supply and sanitation challenges that is affecting the country. The following opportunities have been identified by the NIPDB, in the area of water in Namibia:

    Otjiwarongo Waste Water Treatment plant

    The growing population is increasing the demand for potable water to be distributed to the residents through the supply from NamWater. Currently, the Otjiwarongo Municipality procures water directly from NamWater and does not have an alternative supply. This poses a great risk to the residents as a problem experienced on the supply end would result in the entire town being affected. Therefore, the upgrading of the current system of using oxidation ponds is required to serve a population of 70,000 + residents.

    The Otjiwarongo Municipality proposed to recycle and reuse wastewater generated in the city. This recycled water would be supplied to bulk consumers for industrial consumption to meet the incremental bulk (industrial) demand for water while supplying the conserved water to domestic consumers. Presently, the municipality operates a sewerage treatment plant in the north-western part of the town with a daily treatment capacity of 3,300 cubic metres. The sewerage treatment plant uses oxidation ponds for the secondary treatment of sewage collected from the town to produce treated water that is suitable for gardening purposes.

    The municipality now intends to develop a tertiary treatment plant on a PPP basis. This tertiary treatment plant would draw the secondary treated sewage from the existing sewerage treatment plant and treat it using a suitable tertiary treatment technology (reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration) to produce tertiary treated water that could be supplied to industrial consumers to meet the incremental industrial demand for water in the municipality .

    Estimated Investment required: USD 29mProject Readiness: Concept stage. The feasibility study is to be executed and submitted to the Ministry of Finance (PPP Unit) for assessment. Procurement/implementation consideration: PPP arrangement 

    City of Windhoek Direct Water Reclamation plant

    The City of Windhoek (CoW) is the largest consumer of water within the Central Area of Namibia, and the area uses approximately 27 million cubic metres of potable water per annum. The CoW is responsible for supply, distribution, and maintenance of the quality of potable water within its urban areas. The three main sources of water for the City of Windhoek include bulk water purchased from NamWater (accounting for 60% of the total supply), groundwater (accounting for 20% of the total supply), and reclaimed water (accounting for 20% of the total supply).

    The Windhoek Municipality intends to develop a new Wastewater Reclamation Plant in the city. The CoW is already operating the Goreangab Wastewater Reclamation Plant on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) basis which produces 21,000 cubic metres of drinking water on a daily basis to meet the drinking water demands of 350,000 inhabitants. The Goreangab Wastewater Reclamation plant draws semi-potable effluent from the existing plant and treats the same to potable drinking water quality.

    The Direct Potable Reclamation Plant project will be developed either through a PPP route or a Public Procurement basis. The CoW is already in the process of undertaking expansion of the Gammams Wastewater Treatment Plant such that it would be able to produce adequate semi-potable effluents to meet the requirements of both the Goreangab Wastewater Reclamation plant as well as the proposed new Direct Potable Reclamation Plant.

    Estimated Investment required: USD 39mProject Readiness: The technical feasibility study was executed. The full feasibility is to be executed and finalised.Procurement/implementation consideration: PPP or Public Procurement arrangement. 

    Development of Desalination plant at the Central Coast

    Namibia is an arid to semi-arid country with high variability in rainfall leading to unpredictable availability of water resources in the Central Area of Namibia including the capital, Windhoek, as well the Central Coastal Area, in which the towns of Henties Bay, Arandis, Swakopmund, and Walvis Bay, as well as several uranium mines, are located.

    The two areas (Central Area and Central Coastal Area) are currently water scarce, mainly due to the increase in population, and subsequently the water demands, as a result of rural to urban migration and industrial growth. The Namibian Government commenced with a Feasibility Study to investigate the desalination of seawater for supply to the Central Coastal Area and the Central Area of Namibia. Three water supply scenarios were assessed: SS1 - supply to Central Coastal Area only; SS2 - supply to Central Coastal Area and Central Area of Namibia as well as consumers en-route; and SS3 - supply to Central Coastal Area, Central Area of Namibia, consumers en-route and Botswana.

    The Namibian Government has decided to implement the infrastructure to meet the water demand of the customers (Local Authorities and Uranium Mines) in the Central Coastal Area (SS1) as a first phase.

    The project to supply desalinated seawater to the Central Coastal Area will consist of a new modularised desalination plant adjacent to existing Orano Desalination Plant, complete with seawater intake and brine discharge system, pre-treatment, desalination by reverse osmosis and post-treatment, a pump station, and a new 900 mm diameter, 4.5 km long pipeline which will be connected to the existing above ground Wlotzkasbaken- Swakopmund pipeline. Furthermore, additional clear water storage will be established at the new plant at Swakopmund. It is envisaged that the desalination plant will be built in 3 stages with a production capacity of 20 million cubic metres per annum as the first stage, increasing to 36.2 million cubic metres per annum for the third and final stage. The supply of renewable energy by a photovoltaic system for desalination and water conveyance purposes is envisaged to be pursued during later stages.

    Estimated Investment required: USD 231m (capital cost including pump station, pipeline, storage reservoirs and renewable power plant

    Project Readiness: Feasibility study completed. The feasibility was submitted to the Public Private Partnership (PPP) Unit in the Ministry of Finance for assessment.

    Procurement/Implementation consideration: The Namibian government is exploring different alternatives to implement the project which include a PPP arrangement and Joint Venture partnership with local mines and investors. The desalination plant is to be procured via an EPC/DBOT contract with the developer jointly operating the plant with Namwater for a few years after construction with subsequent transfer to Namwater. 

    Renewable energy

    Namibia has a wealth of renewable energy resources. It boasts the world's second highest solar irradiation regime, high wind power, large supply of invasive plant species bioenergy, hydropower potential, as well a green hydrogen. The following opportunities have been identified for investment in the area of renewable energy:

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents National Renewable Energy Policy
    Relevant institutions Ministry of Mines and Energy

    Green Hydrogen

    Namibia’s world-class solar and wind resources give it a long-term competitive advantage in producing green hydrogen and green ammonia. Two sites have been identified towards this: the Southern Corridor Development Initiative (Karas Region) and the Erongo Green Energy Hub (EGEH). Green Hydrogen namibia

    Opportunities are available for investment in developing hydrogen infrastructure.

    Schonau Solar Energy

    Schonau Solar Energy (SSE) is a 125 MWp solar PV plant being developed by Emesco near the town of Karasburg in the Kharas Region of southern Namibia.

    The project, valued at USD 107m, will generate and export the electricity with the purpose of selling energy into the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) Competitive Markets. 

    Progress to Date

    • Commercial, technical, and legal pre-feasibility - Completed
    • Ministerial approval of change of land use - Approved
    • Environmental Clearance Certificate – Submitted for Review
    • Generation and export licence approvals - Submitted for Review
    • Seller registered as Eligible Generator with MSB office - Declaration of intent submitted
    • Southern African Power Pool membership - In progress (letter of support received - subject to generation licence approval)

    Commercial feasibility

    The African Development Bank recognised Namibia’s Electricity Control Board (ECB) as one of the top five regulators in Africa through the Electricity Regulatory Index for Africa 2021. The Electricity Regulatory Index covers issues relating to the development of effective and investor-friendly regulatory frameworks.

    The SSE project is based on the implementation of effective and investor-friendly regulations by the ECB. The MSB framework allows SSE to participate as a Market Participant on the Southern African Power Pool’s (SAPP) competitive markets through the export of electricity from Namibia. Considering recent generation challenges faced by large utilities in SADC, the SSE project will position itself to capture market-share lost by failing utilities, through reliable and predictable solar generation.

    Emesco has completed its market investigation and concluded that participation on SAPP’s USD-based day-ahead markets offers stable cash flows and above-market returns for the 30-year project life, satisfying both debt and equity participants.

    Accompanied by an excellent renewable resource, favourable regulations, access to well- maintained infrastructure, and a stable political environment, SSE offers investors the opportunity to participate in one of Africa’s most innovative low-risk renewable energy projects. In addition, under Emesco’s leadership and with the assistance of key Namibian stakeholders, the first project under the modified single buyer (MSB) framework (Rosh Pinah Solar Park) reached financial close within 10 months from the signature date of the power purchase agreement, during the peak of the Covid-19 pandemic in Namibia. This is a tremendous achievement for the company and serves as evidence that Emesco is qualified to deliver a well-developed project to investors.

    Investment Required

    Emesco is seeking financial institutions to participate in a blended finance structure as debt participants in partnership with the Development Bank of Namibia (DBN). Through the assistance and support of DBN SSE will benefit from access to a measure of concessional finance.

    Emesco is seeking USD 75 million in debt based on a 70/30 debt-equity ratio. The combined use of the debt and equity will be applied to the construction of the SSE project, which will be drawn on over the18 months construction period leading up to commercial operation in Q1 2025. Considering the long-term project life, SSE seeks a debt tenure of 15 to 20 years to enhance the robustness of the project. 

    Housing and Real estate

    Namibia currently has a deficit of affordable serviced land and housing, and has opportunities for investment and operations in this field. 

    From a legislative and policy perspective, the Urban and Regional Planning Act of 2018, the amended Local Authorities Act of 2018, the National Housing Enterprise Act of 2000, and the Flexible Land Tenure Act of 2012 cohesively work together to expedite and enable dual-land development processes in Namibia. 

    The state continues to act as an enabler by contributing to people-driven initiatives, facilitating the funding efforts of initiatives such as the Ongos Housing Development Programme alongside private investors.

    From an investor’s perspective, opportunities lie in the lower mass market, where the need for affordable housing is great. Another rather promising opening is student accommodation complexes that can accommodate students from low-income households. Housing Finance Africa

    Please see below for a possible investment project presented by the NIPDB:

    Development of a Student Village

    Due to the increased number of university students as a result of the introduction of new academic programmes, the accommodation facilities at universities are inadequate to accommodate all the students. Many of the private accommodation facilities in the vicinity of these universities do not offer the necessary facilities for the students to either study and/or socialise in a conducive environment.

    To meet this demand for student accommodation, the Ministry of Higher Education, Training, and Innovation (MHETI) intends to develop a student village in Windhoek on a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) basis (design, finance, build, operate, maintain, and transfer basis). The objective of this proposed project is to offer off-campus affordable student accommodation.

    Estimated Investment required: USD 59mProject Readiness: The feasibility study for the project is completed and undergoing consultation and approval with the ministry.

    Procurement/implementation consideration: PPP arrangement (design, finance, build, operate, maintain, and transfer). 


    Namibia has the potential to be the transport and logistic hub of the Southern Africa as it strategic location also means that it is poised to be the new gateway to the rest of the continent. 

    Namibia currently has the following corridors facilitated through the Walvisbay Corridor Group : The Port of Walvis Bay and the Port of Lüderitz; the Walvis Bay-Ndola-Lubumbashi Development Corridor (WBNLDC) links the Port of Walvis Bay with Zambia, the Southern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Zimbabwe; the TrasnsKalahari orridor stretches over 1,900 km linking the Port of Walvis Bay with Botswana and South Africa. Walvis Bay-Windhoek-Gaborone-Johannesburg/Pretoria; the Trans-Cunene corridor links the Port of Walvis Bay with southern Angola up to Lubango; and the rans-Oranje Corridor (previously known as the Southern Extension) is a tarred road linking the Ports of Walvis Bay and Lüderitz with the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. 

    There are a few investment opportunities identified in relation to logistics:

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions Walvis Bay Corridor Group

    Logistical Infrastructure: Nakathilo Commercial and Logistics Plaza

    Private Projects and Potential Investment Opportunity

    Trans-Kalahari Logistics CC has developed plans for a new commercial infrastructure project which will culminate in the construction of Nakathilo Commercial and Logistics Plaza. On completion, this will be a multi-tenant business park serving as a key logistics and commodity distribution hub in the North of Namibia. Strategically Located on Erf 8096, extension 18 Ondangwa, and on 20,000m2 of land, we aspire to build:

    • 1788m2 of cold storage facilities with the capacity to hold more than 4000 cubic metres of frozen or chilled products as the anchor amenity.

    • 4440m2 of dry goods commercial warehouse space, supported by on-site office and business support amenities.

    • 5899m2 of office space for rental to a diverse range of businesses and for use in support of the warehouse operations on site.

      The corporation intends to develop this infrastructure and rent it out to commercial tenants, primarily in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) wholesale and retail sector. This project was inspired by the gap in logistics and warehousing infrastructure that we identified in this fast-growing region of Namibia. Product cold chain management is particularly challenging for businesses in this region. Maximum average annual temperatures exceed 30C for up to 8 months of the year including peak periods in the FMCG sector such as December festive holidays.

      The town of Ondangwa itself, is strategically positioned in terms of access to critical trade routes in the north of the country. It can be used as transit point for product destined for neighbouring Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe and our proposed development site sits virtually at the intersection of three major highways leading from Ondangwa to three significant northern towns, namely:

      • Oshakati
      • Oshikango • Ongwediva

      This site would therefore draw interest from businesses in all these towns and beyond our borders, as an ideal base for holding and managing bulk inventory, closer to its intended market. The town of Ondangwa is home to the only fully operating international airport in northern Namibia, and this is ideal for this project as the site is less than a 10-minutes drive from the Andimba Toivo yaToivo International Airport. 

    Progress to Date

    The project is based on two development phases namely phase 1 (PH1) and phase 2 (PH2). Funding permitting, this project can be completed in 24 months, commencing on 1 September 2022 and with a completion date of 31 August 2024. The development will consist of the following distinct activities:

    • Access roads, platform & external works• Mega warehouses and mid-sized distribution warehouses • Commercial centre• Commercial Cold storage• Storage/trading Garages

    To date, land acquisition and planning, Licensing and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Financial projections and feasibility studies, as well as, Geotechnical Surveys and stormwater studies have been completed.

    Investment Required

    Trans Kalahari Logistics CC has secured title to ERF 8096, extension 18 Ondangwa, the company has since invested N$ 3,6m to bring the project to financial close. The Corporation is seeking Mortgage-loan Finance to the tune of N$ 265m. This will enable full completion of the capital project described above over the course of 24 months. We propose repayment of the loan over a period of 20 years commencing from the date of completion of building activities. We have stuck to the following relatively conservative key assumptions in our budgets:

    • Bond interest rate of 11.75%

    • Rental income annual escalation of 8%, while operating expenses are escalated at

      10% per annum throughout the period.

    • 80% occupancy of all available rental space throughout the bond repayment period.

      Another form of finance that the company is looking at is in the form of equity partnership. The company is willing to take on equity partners to invest in the project on a 40/60 percentage shareholding basis. The equity partner will be acquiring 40% shares in the centre with Trans-Kalahari Logistics retaining 60% shareholding. The funds from the sale of equity will be used for the completion of phase 1 (PH1) of the project with the remainder of the funding to be enquired through senior debt financing which would be secured from local commercial Banks and/or other financial institutions. 

    Logistical Infrastructure: Walvis Bay Consolidated Cold Storage

    Private Projects and Potential Investment Opportunity

    The company intends to construct a 10,000 metric tonnes, modern, high density, and multi commodity cold storage facility in the port city of Walvis Bay which will be offered for rental on time/capacity rate basis to the fishing companies, frozen fish importers, frozen chicken importers, and beef exporters. The proposed commercial cold storage will cover both chilled and frozen products across a range of commodities. In addition to storage the business will provide a range of additional services such as repackaging, weighing, handling and various sorting options to a broad range of customers. The Cold Storage facility will provide high-density storage for up to 10,000 metric tonnes of frozen fish, frozen chicken & meat products.

    The business is about building a modern, large capacity commercial cold store that will provide a range of services to many local and international customers. There are several sectors through which the business will achieve sales. The company will provide a valuable outlet for the fishing industry especially for all companies awarded new fishing rights most of whom don’t own their own cold storage facilities. The business will also service the critical need within the meat sector both frozen and chilled. The buoyant wholesale market for fish, meat and chicken will also be a key source of revenue as well as the retail sector which is performing strongly in the region. Food processors and fresh produce which are key areas of growth will be long-term areas of growth, revenues from this sector will be modest to start with but will become key market segments in the future.

    Progress to Date

    Feasibility studies, comprehensive business planning with financial viability studies, licensing, EIA, and designs have all been completed. Also, as part of the partnership with the Namibia Development Corporation (NDC), land to the value of N$ 20m has been acquired.

    Commercial Feasibility

    The current conditions to establish a cold storage business in Walvis Bay are very favourable and the timing is right. It gives a significant advantage by having a modern cold storage facility and enables the business to become the premier Namibian owned and operated cold storage in the Country. There is a real opportunity to raise the bar when it comes to services and levels of efficiency through the use of the latest technology. The combination of several features such as strong corporate image, creative digital and other marketing, advanced technology and great service offering such as the client portal and 24/7 access will position the business as the leading cold storage in the region.

    Currently, there is a shortage of commercial cold storage facilities in Walvis Bay with many companies directing products to South Africa to meet their needs. The demand for cold storage is also going to increase because of the increased traffic due to the port expansion. Currently, there is only one direct competitor in the market, hence there is a definite need for another cold store without diluting the supply or creating a price war. Africa is developing and in section three we see many indicators that point to significant growth in consumer demand and a maturing retail sector as trading shifts from informal to formal structures. 

    This change is the driver and will create significant growth in the food sector bringing about growth in the cold storage sector. Although there is no detailed reports or figures on the cold storage market which can predict the size of the market parallel research from the consumer sectors are equally as valuable as it points to real demand.

    Investment Required

    The total project cost is equal to N$ 110m/USD 8.5m and no financing has been secured.

    An Equity and Debt financing deal is sought. As part of the partnership with the Namibia Development Corporation (NDC), land to the value of N$ 20m has been given to the business in return for a 20% equity stake in the business. The remaining 80% shares will be shared between Walvis Bay Consolidated Cold Storage (Pty) Ltd and any potential investor, whereby the potential investor may acquire 40% or more shares as equity and Walvis Bay Consolidated Cold Storage (Pty) Ltd will retain the remaining 40% or fewer shares in the form of debt finance that will be serviced by Walvis Bay Consolidated Cold Storage (Pty) Ltd.

    Can also look at a Build Operate and Transfer (BOT) deal structure for a period of 15- 20 years. 

    Development of a new international terminal at Hosea Kutako International Airport, Windhoek

    Namibia Airports Company (NAC) is the operator of Hosea Kutako International Airport (HKIA), the larger of Namibia’s two main international airports, located 45km east of the capital city, Windhoek. HKIA is Namibia’s largest airport and the aviation gateway of the nation.

    International routes added to HKIA from 2016 resulted in double-digit passenger growth which necessitated the need for HKIA to be expanded both in the short term and in the medium to long term. NAC has recently completed an expansion project aimed at alleviating congestion in the existing Terminals 1 and 2 and increasing capacity in the short term. It is worth noting, however, that the current works done on existing terminals are expected to accommodate very limited growth in passenger traffic until no later than 2030. After that, the existing facilities will simply not be adequate to accommodate the passenger and aircraft movements.

    The ability for HKIA to continue offering an Optimum Level of Service (LoS) to passengers from around the globe has a direct impact on the socio-economic climate of Namibia. A new sustainable & innovative international terminal is required to ensure the longevity of this key logistics hub by providing additional facilities and increased capacity. Terminal 3 Expansion will consist of a new terminal and possibly additional apron and taxiway works to accommodate incremental future traffic growth.

    The NAC intends to procure the services of a private partner to expand, manage and operate through a Public-Private Partnership (PPP).

    Estimated Investment required: USD 241m

    Project Readiness: A PPP options analysis and a pre-feasibility study was performed during 2018 with the assistance of the World Bank. Another feasibility study was concluded in 2020 with a view to securing a loan for the construction of Terminal 3. Subsequent to the conclusion of the latter feasibility study, the aviation industry was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, thereby rendering some forecasts and assumptions applied in the feasibility studies largely outdated. NAC is, therefore, ready to commence with an update of these feasibility studies.

    Procurement Consideration: PPP arrangement 


    The manufacturing sector plays a strategic role in economic development and is a component of industry that presents greater opportunities for sustained growth, employment, and income inequality and poverty reduction. Manufacturing activities in the country are concentrated in the subsectors of meat processing, fish processing, other food and beverages, and mineral beneficiation. The latter largely represents the smelting of copper and zinc ore, and the cutting and polishing of rough diamonds. Manufacturing sector

    Manufacturing activities in the country are concentrated in the subsectors of meat processing, fish processing, other food and beverages, and mineral beneficiation. The latter largely represents the smelting of copper and zinc ore, and the cutting and polishing of rough diamonds.

    Namibia’s manufacturing sector has considerable investment potential as the domestic economy is relatively well endowed with natural resource factors such as raw materials, required labour force, abundant land, and rich minerals. The following opportunities can be tapped into:

    • Steel manufacturing and metal fabrication
    • Automotive parts
    • Fodder and Pet Food Production
    • Jewellery industry
    • Production of Chemicals
    • Manufacturing of leather, wool and textiles

    Find out more...

    Relevant institutions Ministry of Industrialization and Trade

    ROOTS Development

    The ROOTS Development is a project by Jahenmar Trading Enterprises (Pty) Ltd which entails a self-sustaining township development that provides a platform for integration between agriculture, education, and other supporting commercial trades in a balanced lifestyle environment. The vision of ROOTS is to provide enough food for the Namibian nation, instead of continuing to be dependent on other countries for food supply. A secondary aim of the project is to train fellow Namibians on how to produce food efficiently, for optimal harvest and yield and thereby ensuring the long- term sustainability of the project. 

    The required project investment of N$160 million will also include a manufacturing plant at ROOTS to process and bottle sauces made from the chillies, apples, tomatoes, and other produce, with off-take locally and abroad. N$ 136.5m is required as a capital investment over a 12-15month period, with an additional N$ 24.5m required as working capital until the project becomes self-sustaining at the end of this period. 

    Private Public Partnerships (PPP)

    Recognizing the importance of leveraging PPP as an instrument for achieving its social objectives (such as black empowerment, increased employment for the historically disadvantaged, encouraging managerial and entrepreneurial capability in the local population, stimulating small and medium enterprises, achieving economic equality through the ‘Transformation Economic and Social Empowerment Framework’), the namibian Govenrment developed the Namibia Public Private Partnership (PPP) Policy. This policy is implemented by the PPP Unit, under the Minstry of Finance. 

    On 16 June 2021, the Minister of Finance, Iipumbu Shiimi announced the top five priority projects under the public private partnership (PPP) initiative: the Wastewater Direct Reclamation Plant (City of Windhoek), Otjiwarongo Wastewater Treatment Works (Otjiwarongo Municipality), Desalination Water Supply Project (NamWater), Concentrated Solar Power with PV, (NamPower, and Development of Student Village (Ministry of Higher Education, Training and Innovation). See Priority projects for PPP

    Some of these projects are others are included in the booklet prepared by the NIPDB, which can be accessed below.

    Find out more...

    Relevant documents Namibia Investment Projects

    Why invest in the country?

    Main advantages for investors:
    • Peace, stability and good governance
    • First world road, rail and air infrastructure
    • Excellent telecommunications network
    • Wide inter-continental market access
    • Liberal investment regime
    • Stable labour environment
    • Generous investment regimes
    • Fast, efficient and transparent bureaucracy
    • Low inflation
    • Stable foreign exchange reserves
    • Strategically located, low cost and efficient port
    • Young and trainable labour force
    • Good housing and recreational facilities

    Country data

    Official name Republic of Namibia
    Country area 318,261 Sq Mi
    Capital city WIndhoek
    Population 2,533,000 2021 est
    Administrative regions Khomas
    Local currency Namibian dollar (N$)
    Exchange rate 1 Namibian dollar equals 0.067 United States Dollar / 1 Namibian dollar equals 0.061 Euro / 1 Namibian dollar equals 0.051 Pound sterling
    Official language(s) English
    Other national language(s) Afrikaans. German, Ju/’hoan Oshikwanyama, Oshindonga, Otjiherero, Rugciriku, Rukwangali, Setswana, Khoekhoegowab , Silozi, Thimbukushu,
    GDP per capita 4,520 2020

    Country map

    Country Map

    Encyclopedia Britannica Namibia | History, Map, Flag, Population, Capital, & Facts | Britannica
    last update on: 22/11/2022